Unani traditional medicine
The Unani system was originated in Greece and the pioneering man behind the system was Hippocrates. Unani, the Indian system of traditional medicine had been practiced in India for a long time. It came to India by Arabs and Persians during the eleventh century, who worked and researched extensively on Greek philosophy. It got adequate patronage from the Delhi Sultanate. Since then, it is rooted here except for the British regime. Now, India is the leading country in the world in terms of Unani education, hospitals, and health care facilities.
Unani principle concepts
The entire concept of the Unani system of medicine revolves around four humor theory of Hippocrates: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. As per Unani, the human body consists of seven components: Element (Arkan), Temperament (Mizaj), Humors (Akhlat), Organs (Aaza), Spirits (Arwah), Faculties (Quwa), and Functions (Afaal). The four parts of the element with temperament are Air (hot & moist), Earth (cold & dry), Fire (hot & dry), and Water (cold & moist).
In Unani treatment, the six essential pre-requisites (Asbab Sitta e Zaroriayah) for the promotion of health and prevention of diseases are Air, Food and drinks, Bodily movement and repose, Psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, Evacuation and retention. The important treatments in Unani medicine are:
1.Regimental therapy (Ilaj-bil-Tadbir): It is also known as the detoxification method. The following techniques used in regimental therapy are:
- Venesection (Fasd)- good for blood-related problems, toxicity prevention, waste excretion, and menstrual disorder.
- Cupping (Al-hijama)- Used in case of skin cleansing, menses solutions, liver disease, and piles.
- Sweating (Tareeq)-releases waste matter from the skin.
- Diuresis (Idrar-e-baul)-helps in excreting toxic matter from the body.
- Turkish bath (Hamam)-refreshing the body.
- Massage (Dalk, Malish). Counter irritation- provides relief to pain and burning irritation.
- Cauterization (Amal-e-Kae)-prevents poison malignancy and joint pains, helps to remove pathogens.
- Purging (Ishal)- Used for intestinal evacuation.
- Vomiting (Qai)-Good in treating headache, migraine, bronchial related problems.
- Exercise (Riyazat)-Good for overall wellbeing.
- Leeching (Taleeq-e-Alaq)-Used to remove toxins from the body.
2. Dieto Therapy (Ilaj-bil-Ghiza): Diet plays important role in the Unani system. Quality and quantity of food are of utmost importance in Unani.
3. Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj-bil-Dawa): It deals with drugs, especially naturally occurring drugs.
4. Surgery (Ilaj-bil-Yad): Simple and minor surgery is being conducted in the system.
Leading Unani Institutes/Institutions
The topmost unani institutions and organizations of the world are given below.
- Hamdard Al-Majeed College of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University, Pakistan
- Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM), New Delhi, India
- Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM), Hyderabad, India
- Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Science, India
- Jamia Tibbiya Deoband, India
- Unani Department of Hamdard University, India
- Tibbia College, Pakistan
- National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India
- Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College, Gulbarga, Karnataka
- Govt. Unani and Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Top Unani Hakims of the world
The leading and pioneering Hakims who had contributed a lot to the growth and promotion of the Unani system are given below. They have given a new direction to the naturally occurring drug discipline.
- Hakim Abdul Aziz
- Hakim Abdul Hameed
- Hakim Ajmal Khan
- Hakim Habibur Rahman
- Hakim Hammad Usmani
- Hakim Mohammed Said
- Hakim Syed Atiqul Qadir
- Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman
- Hakim Syed Karam Hussain
- Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman
- Qazi Mazhar Qayyum
Unani doctors are having good job opportunities in India, South East Asia, and the Middle East because of its holistic nature and in-depth healing power with the least side effects. One can become an Unani doctor after passing the Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery (BUMS) course. It is 5½ years course including house surgery. The eligibility for BUMS is that one should pass the 12th standard with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate in physics, chemistry, and biology from a recognized college or university. Those candidates who have Urdu in their Intermediate exam are given preference. After completing BUMS, one can also pursue MD (Mahir-e-Tibb) and MS courses. The interested candidate may also pursue Ph.D.
Unani research centers
- RRI of Unani Medicine, Srinagar
- Clinical Research Unit, Bangalore
- Clinical Research Unit, Alawaye
- Clinical Research Unit, Bhopal
- Clinical Research Unit, Buranpur
- RRI of Unani Medicine, Mumbai
- Family Welfare Research Unit, Mumbai
- Clinical Research Unit, Unani Medical College & Hospital, Pune
- RRI of Unani Medicine, Balasore
- RRI of Unani Medicine, Chennai
- Drug Standardisation Research Unit, Chennai
- Institute of Unani Medicinal Plants, Lucknow
- RRIUM, Aligarh
- Clinical Research Unit, Allahabad
- Clinical Research Unit, Meerut
- Drug Standardisation Research Unit, Lucknow
- Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad
- Drug Standardisation Unit Jamia Hamdard, Delhi
- RRI of Unani Medicine, Abul Fazal, Okhla
Unani medical colleges
There are many Unani medical colleges and institutions in India, which are offering UG and PG courses in the field. The list of 38 medical colleges is being given, which are spread in different states of the country.