Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer with the highest rate of death among cancers and seen with age group of 45-55 years. Male breast cancer too occurs and accounts 1 % of all cancer death.
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Symptom and signs
- Formation of lumps and swelling in the breast.
- Swelling in the armpit.
- Change in the shape of the breast.
- Fluid discharge from the breast.
- Redness throughout the breast.
- Inverted nipple.
- Spontaneous single-nipple discharge.
- Feeling of itching, burning and pain.
- Pitted skin on nipple.
- Continuous skin irritation
- Unusual breast pain
- Tenderness of the breast
- Bone pain in the latter stage.
- Breathlessness, headache and weakness
- Lack of appetite
- Weight loss at a high speed.
- Breast is excessively warm to touch.
- Breast skin ulcers in the advance stage
As the person gets older, the incidence rate of breast cancer increases.
- Increases the risk when relative like mother, sister and daughter were diagnosed.
- Early commencement of menses and menopause are too responsible for it.
- Exposure to carcinogenic radioactive rays and harmful chemicals.
- Hormonal replacement.
- Pregnancy at the latter stage.
- Late birth to kids and not feeding the offspring.
- More risk among Smoker and Drinker.
- Second part is at threat if one side is treated with breast cancer.
- Obesity, especially in postmenopausal women.
- Using oral contraceptive for a longer period.
- Major skeleton side effects happened after treatment like Hormonal therapy, Chemotherapy, Radiation and bisphosphonate therapy.
- Bone mineral density lessens after Hormonal therapy.
- Chemotherapy leads to ovarian failure.
- Rib problem may be experienced after radiation therapy.
- Jaw problem occur after bisphosphonate therapy.
- Slight swelling is observed in the breast after radiation.
- Skin colour becomes dark after radiotherapy.
- Fracture of breastbone.
- Arm swelling may happen due to radiation therapy.
- Fracture of chest wall along the breast and chest pain.
- Nipple replacement
- Radiation therapy causes skin burn, difficulty in swallowing, hair loss and weight loss.
- Chemotherapy causes constipation, mouth sores and nausea too.
- Women as getting older or age over 60 have greater chance.
- Cancer in one breast increases the risk for other.
- Cancer with near and dear ones like mother, sister and daughter.
- Direct family members having cancer of ovary, cervix, uterus or colon increases the risk.
- Genetic change like BRCA1, BRCA2 etc.
- Past breast biopsy.
- Excessive radiation therapy before 30 years means higher the chances at the later years.
- Women without children.
- Beginning of menstrual period at quite early stage and menopause after 55
- Black women are lesser prone than white one.
- Obesity with excess fat intake after menopause.
- Women who has low physical activity.
- Alcoholic women have greater chances.
- Heavy use of estrogen and progesterone.
- Birth control pills appear to slightly increase the risk
Staging is related with treatment module and survival rates.
- Stage 0: Sometimes abnormal cells and many doctors don’t consider it as cancer.
- Stage I: Cancer cells spread beyond the origin point.
- Stage II: Here tumor is between 2 to 5 cm and spread to lymph nodes under arm.
- Stage III: is an advanced one where the tumor is more than 5 cm, swelling of breast may be experienced, spread to the lymph nodes above and below the collarbone.
- where the cancer spread to other parts of the body.
- Mammogram- is used to detect precancerous cells which may be lump or tiny speck of calcium.
- Ultrasound: show the lump is whether solid or liquid or both.
- MRI: diseases tissue can be found out easily.
- Biopsy- some affected body part is taken out to know cancer.
- Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Here cells are taken out from a thin needle.
- Core biopsy: Wide needle is used to get the sample.
- Skin biopsy: a portion of skin is taken for sample.
- Surgical biopsy: Removes a sample of tissue.
- Hormone receptor tests: Hormone therapy is for treatment purpose.
- Positron Emission Tomography: radioactive substance like glucose-8-fluorodeoxyglucose is to diagnose the disease.