The statement Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai made by former Prime Minister Nehru became irrelevant after the 1962 war when China illegally captured the large tract of Indian territory in the western and eastern parts of India.
China had physical possessions of 38,000 square kilometers of Aksai Chin area in 1962 and the 5,180 square kilometers of northern Kashmir ceded to China by Pakistan. China has also claimed of 90,000 sq km in Arunachal Pradesh, which it termed as South Tibet.
China and India share a long border, divided into three stretches by the states of Nepal and Bhutan. These regions include a number of disputed stretches i.e. Aksai Chin which China considered as a strategic points.
India-China border issue in Arunachal Pradesh
Despite many years of continuous border negotiations, both the states failed to settle its land frontiers or even fully defined a line of control. In the region of Arunachal Pradesh, China vacated it to the Line of Actual Control (LAC), which approximates the McMahon Line. In the recent times, China considered Asapila, Lungar and Majak camps in the Taksin area. Most of the McMahon Line is already under Chinese control. The local people of Arunachal Pradesh are sad because they are gtradually losing their land to China.
Border issue in the west
In the Pak ceded area to China, the Chinese government made the Karakoram highway which link Sinkiang, Tibet and Pakistan. In the western sector of Ladakh, the contours are ambiguous due to complicated terrain. Incrusions are reported to eastern Ladakh on the northern bank of Lake Pangong Tso too. Sometimes back, the Chinese forces launched attacks in the Chip Chap Valley, Galwan Valley, and Pangong Lake where both sides suffered heavy casualties.
Infrastucture development near LAC
To get a political mileage, the Chinese government making roads on the other side of LAC. Indian border police came across Army workers and engineers completing road for military use. There are also reports of Chinese road in the Asaphi La region of Arunachal Pradesh.
China’s strategic encircling
Over the many years, China has been encircling India strategically. On the West, the Gwadar port has the potential to dominate shipping through and from the Gulf. Much more strategic is applying in the southwest to have a base in Gan Base in the Maldives. It has a base on the Great Coco Islands in the Bay of Bengal, which can survellience all the ports of India in Bay of Bengal. In Akyab, Cheduba and Bassein ports of Myanmar, it has considerable hegemony. In the Andaman Sea it has access to Tenassirim, which is most strategically located and near to the Malacca Strait.
Role of diplomacy
Over the years, the visit of prime ministers and diplomatic talks at the various levels, the era of fruitful diplomacy is visualizing between the two Asian giants. The bilateral relationship back on the track after the visit of Rajiv Gandhi, the then prime minister in 1988. More progressed seen when Narasimha Rao visited China in 1993 and signed an agreement with Beijing on maintaining peace and tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control. The Border Peace and Tranquility Agreement (BPTA) of 1993 and Confidence Building Measures in 1996 seemed to reduce the tension. Border talks were also discussed on regular basis since 2003. Mutual economic dependence is growing every year with bilateral trade increasing.